Skip Navigation
Department of Health and Human Services www.hhs.gov
 
This website is iPhone friendly.

This CME/CE activity is provided by PRIME Education, Inc. (PRIME®) and is accredited for a multi-disciplinary audience of health care practitioners. This activity is supported by contract number HHSA290201200021I from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. User data collected through this activity will reside on PRIME's educational portal for use by AHRQ.

AHRQ's Comparative Effectiveness Research on Lipid-Modifying Therapies: Summarizing the Systematic Review Findings

To Receive a Certificate for This Activity:

Course Image
  1. 1. Read the Program Overview on this page.
  2. 2. Review the Faculty Biographies, Accreditation Statements, and Disclosure tabs.
  3. 3. Access the Activity in full.
  4. 4. Complete the Post-Test & Evaluation.
  5. 5. A printable certificate will be available immediately following the activity.

Program Overview

Activity Description

Cardiovascular disease is well established as the leading cause of death in the United States and other developed countries. Many well-designed studies support the effectiveness of lipid-modifying therapies for reducing the risks of CVD and its associated mortality. For people with abnormal levels of blood cholesterol, the standard first-line medications for reducing these risks are the statins. These agents act by inhibiting 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, an enzyme involved in hepatic cholesterol synthesis. Low-dose statin regimes successfully lower LDL cholesterol to target levels in many, but not all, individuals. For those who require intensive lipid-modifying therapy, a key clinical decision is whether to increase the dose of statin monotherapy or to combine a statin with another class of lipid-modifying therapy (eg, ezetimibe, a fibrate, niacin, a bile acid sequestrant, or an omega-3 fatty acid). In 2009, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality published a systemic review of studies that addressed various aspects of this decision. This educational activity summarizes the key findings of the review and poses potential applications to clinical practice.

Learning Objectives

At the conclusion of this activity, the participant should be able to:

  • Describe the long-term clinical benefits and harms of increased doses of statin monotherapy versus the combination of a statin and another cholesterol-lowering agent for patients requiring intensive therapy
  • Review the effects of higher-dose statin monotherapy versus combination therapy on cholesterol targets, short-term side effects, tolerability, and adherence
  • Summarize the comparative benefits and harms of higher-dose statin monotherapy versus combination therapies in selected patient subgroups
  • Apply relevant findings to patient-centered treatment decisions, education, and promotion of adherence

Target Audience

This CME activity is designed to meet the educational needs of physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, pharmacists, nurses, case managers, dieticians, medical assistants.

Method of Participation

To receive a certificate for this activity, you should:

  • Complete the learner assessment pretest
  • View the entire activity online
  • Complete an online evaluation & post-test
  • Print your certificate online

The estimated time to complete this activity, including review of the materials, is 1.0 hour.

Term of Approval

March 31, 2011 through October 14, 2014. Original release date: March 31, 2011.

Acknowledgement of Support

There is no fee for this CME/CE activity. This activity is sponsored by PRIME Education, Inc (PRIME®) and funded under contract HHSA290201200021I from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

Faculty Biographies and Disclosures

Click faculty name to view full biography.

Contributing Author

Mukul Sharma, MD, MSc, FRCPC
Deputy Director
Clinical Affairs and Health Policy
Director of Regional Stroke Program
The Canadian Stroke Network
Assistant Professor of Medicine
Department of Neurology
University of Ottawa
Ottawa, ON
Lead investigator of the AHRQ’s comparative effectiveness research of lipid modifying agents

Contributing Author

Laurence Greene, PhD
Scientific Education Manager
PRIME Education, Inc.
Tamarac, FL

Planner

Carolyn LePage, PhD, ARNP
Assistant Professor
Barry University School of Nursing
Miami Shores, FL

Planner

Heidi Wynn Maloni, PhD, ANP-BC, CNRN, MSCN
National Clinical Nursing Director
Department of Neurology
Multiple Sclerosis Center of Excellence, East Veterans Affairs Medical Center
Adjunct Faculty
Trinity Nursing Program School of Professional Studies, Trinity Washington University
Clinical Preceptor and Instructor
Advanced Practice Programs, The Catholic University of America School of Nursing
Washington, DC

Planner

Michele B Kaufman, PharmD, CGP, RPh
President, PRN Communications Inc.
Editor, Pharmacovigilance Forum, P&T Journal
NYCSHP Secretary
Adjunct Faculty
Touro College of Pharmacy
New York, NY

Peer Reviewer

Joyce M Knestrick, PhD, CRNP, FAANP
Online Program Director
Associate Professor Georgetown University
Family Nurse Practitioner at Wheeling Health Right
Wheeling, WV

Peer Reviewer

Sherman Podolsky, MD
Medical Director
Superior HealthPlan
Former Chairman
Department of Emergency Medicine
Albert Einstein Medical Center
Philadelphia, PA

Peer Reviewer

Donna M Chiefari, BSc (Pharm), PharmD, RPh, FASHP
Adjunct Faculty & Preceptor
Albany College of Pharmacy
Albany, NY

Peer Reviewer

Kathleen A Jarvis, MS, RN, CCM
Clinical Educator
Alere Healthcare
Fort Lauderdale, FL

Begin Activity

Accreditation/Credit Designation

Physician Credit Designation Statement

A C C M E Logo

PRIME Education, Inc. (PRIME®) is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

PRIME® designates this enduring material for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit. Physicians should claim only credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Physician Assistant Accreditation Statement

AAPA accepts certificates of participation for educational activities certified for AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™ from organizations accredited by ACCME. Physician assistants may receive a maximum of 1.0 hours of Category I credit for completing this program.

Nurse Practitioner Accreditation Statement

Nurse Practitioner Logo

PRIME Education, Inc (PRIME®) is approved as a provider of Nurse Practitioner Continuing Education by the American Association of Nurse Practitioners. Provider number: 060815. This program is accredited for 1.0 contact hour, which includes .50 hour of pharmacology. Program ID# CER4.

This program was planned in accordance with AANP CE Standards and Policies and AANP Commercial Support Standards.

Pharmacist Accreditation StatementA C P E Logo

PRIME® is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education. This curriculum has been approved for 1.0 contact hour (0.1 CEUs) by PRIME®. The Universal Activity Number for this program is 0255-0000-13-026-H01-P. This learning activity is Knowledge-Based.

Nurse Accreditation StatementA N C C Logo

PRIME Education, Inc. (PRIME®) is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation.

PRIME® designates this activity for 1.0 contact hour.

Medical Assistant Accreditation Statement

This program has been granted prior approval by the American Association of Medical Assistants (AAMA) for 1.0 Continuing Education unit. Approval #125191. Granting approval in no way constitutes endorsement by the AAMA of the program content or the program's sponsor.

Dietician Accreditation Statement

This program has been approved by the Commission on Dietetic Registration for 1.0 CPEUs of continuing education for Registered Dieticians (RD) and Dietetic Technicians, Registered (DTR).

Begin Activity

Faculty Disclosures

Faculty Name
Advisory Board Consultant Grants / Research Salary / Contractual Supported Promotional Education Stock / Shareholder Other Financial Support
Mukul Sharma, MD, MSc, FRCPC
Contributor
None None None None None None None
Laurence Greene, PhD
Contributor
None None None None None None None
Carolyn LePage, PhD, ARNP
Planner
None None None Barry University None None None
Heidi Wynn Maloni, PhD, ANP-BC, CNRN, MSCN
Planner
None None None None None None None
Michele B Kaufman, PharmD, CGP, RPh
Planner
None None None None None None None
Joyce M Knestrick, PhD, CRNP, FAANP
Reviewer
None None None None None None None
Sherman Podolsky, MD
Reviewer
None None None None None None None
Donna M Chiefari, BSc (Pharm), PharmD, RPh, FASHP
Reviewer
None None None None None None None
Kathleen A Jarvis, MS, RN, CCM
Reviewer
None None None None None None None
Chris R Prostko, PhD
Scientific Program Director
NoneNoneNonePRIME®NoneNoneNone
Lynn Goldenberg, RN, BSN
Director of Accreditation & Compliance
NoneNoneNonePRIME®NoneNoneNone

Disclosure Policy

PRIME Education Inc (PRIME®) endorses the standards of the ACCME, as well as those of the AANP, ANCC and ACPE, that require everyone in a position to control the content of a CME/CE activity to disclose all financial relationships with commercial interests that are related to the content of the CME/CE activity. CME/CE activities must be balanced, independent of commercial bias and promote improvements or quality in healthcare. All recommendations involving clinical medicine must be based on evidence accepted within the medical profession.

A conflict of interest is created when individuals in a position to control the content of CME/CE have a relevant financial relationship with a commercial interest which therefore may bias his/her opinion and teaching. This may include receiving a salary, royalty, intellectual property rights, consulting fee, honoraria, stocks or other financial benefits.

PRIME® willidentify, review and resolve all conflicts of interest that speakers, authors, course directors, planners, peer reviewers, or relevant staff disclose prior to an educational activity being delivered to learners. Disclosure of a relationship is not intended to suggest or condone bias in any presentation but is made to provide participants with information that might be of potential importance to their evaluation of a presentation. Disclosure information for speakers, authors, course directors, planners, peer reviewers, and/or relevant staff are provided with this activity.

Presentations that provide information in whole or in part related to non FDA approved uses of drugs and/or devices will disclose the unlabeled indications or the investigational nature of their proposed uses to the audience. Participants should refer to the official prescribing information for each product for discussion of approved indications, contraindications and warnings. Participants should verify all information and data before treating patients or employing any therapies prescribed in this educational activity. The opinions expressed in the educational activity are those of the presenting faculty and do not necessarily represent the views of PRIME®, the ACCME, AANP, ACPE, ANCC and other relevant accreditation bodies.

Content validation methods are consistently utilized by PRIME® to ensure that all program content is evidence-based, fair-balanced, and developed with scientific rigor and integrity. All clinical recommendations are based on evidence accepted within the medical profession. All scientific research referred to, reported or used to support a clinical recommendation conforms to accepted standards of experimental design, data collection and analysis. In addition to review of content by course directors and expert faculty, content is also validated through independent peer reviewers selected for their expertise in the content area, as well as their experience in the intended audience. All peer reviewers, planners, course directors, faculty and relevant staff utilized by PRIME® complete disclosures which are related to their role in the educational activity.

Accessibility

PRIME®is committed to providing access to our CME programs for individuals with disabilities as identified in Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act for all web-based programs. This website is 508 compliant.

Begin Activity

Pretest

To access the activity, please complete this brief Pretest.

  • Returning user? Login Here!
  1. Before accessing this educational activity, were you aware of the AHRQ-supported comparative effectiveness research on lipid-modifying therapies?

  2. Which of the following does NOT correctly match a nonstatin lipid-modifying therapy with one of its primary proposed effects?

  3. In AHRQ's systematic review of studies on lipid-modifying therapies, significantly greater reductions of LDL-c were most frequently associated with _____________ combination therapy versus statin monotherapy.

  4. How would you describe your current level of confidence in applying comparative effectiveness research to your practice?

  5. How valuable is comparative effectiveness research for educating patients about treatment and management options?

  6. If you had clinician/consumer guides on lipid-modifying therapies, what would you most likely do?

  7. FP is a 47-year-old man with dyslipidemia who has been taking low-dose statin monotherapy (rosuvastatin 10 mg daily) for the previous 6 months. As measured in a recent visit to his primary care physician, the patient’s LDL-cholesterol was 142 mg/dL. The doctor recommended maintaining the low-dose statin and adding a nonstatin lipid-modifying therapy. Regarding this prescription, which of the following factors are most appropriate to consider? Check all that apply.

Post-Test & Evaluation

You must access the activity before receiving credit!

Clinician & Consumer Summaries on Cholesterol

Download these free summaries for your reference and/or patient handouts. You may also order bulk copies free of charge from the AHRQ Publication Clearinghouse below.

AHRQ Clearinghouse Bulk Order Form

Returning user? Login Here
  • (Limit 200)
  • (This answer helps stop spam )
  • Alternatively, you can call the AHRQ Publications Clearinghouse at 1-800-358-9295. Reference the title and product number above.